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Chemodenervation with Botulinum Toxin

Section: Injections
Effective Date: March 01, 2020

Description

Chemodenervations (i.e., botulinum toxin injections) are intramuscular injections of neurotoxins.The toxin acts by blocking release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction thus reducing the tone of overactive muscles. There are several commercial products (consisting of either serotype-A or serotype-B) currently available for use. Each differs in its unit potency, side effects, and duration of action. The clinical goals for utilizing neurotoxin injections are to result in a temporary chemodenervation of the effected muscle at the neuromuscular junction thus: reducing pain or increasing comfort, improving function, preventing or treating musculoskeletal complications, facilitating ease of care, and/or for improving the general appearance, mobility and/or phonation in patients presenting with spasticity or dystonia.

Criteria

OnabotulinumtoxinA (Botox®) may be considered medically necessary when it's used in the treatment of ANY of the following conditions:

  • Acute dystonia due to drugs; or
  • Blepharospasm associated with dystonia in individuals greater than or equal to 12 years of age characterized by intermittent or sustained closure of the eyelids caused by involuntary contractions of the orbicularis oculi muscle; or
  • Cervical dystonia, also known as spasmodic torticollis in adults and pediatric individuals age equal to or greater than 16 years; (applicable whether congenital or due to child birth injury or traumatic injury), associated with sustained head tilt or abnormal posturing with limited range of motion in the neck and a history of recurrent involuntary contraction of one or more of the muscles of the neck (e.g. sternocleidomastoid, splenius, trapezius or posterior cervical muscles); or
  • Prevention of chronic migraine headaches in adult individuals. Chronic is defined as greater than or equal to 15 days per month for greater than 3 months with features of migraine headache on at least 8 days per month lasting four hours a day or longer.
    • Prescribed by or in consultation with a neurologist or headache specialist; and
    • A healthcare provider trained in administration of onabotulinumtoxinA (Botox) is administering the drug; and
    • A diagnosis of chronic migraine headache has been established using the International Classification of Headache Disorders, Third Edition (ICHD-III); and
    • There is a persistent three month history of recurring debilitating headaches as defined above and documented by a headache diary;and
    • The headaches are not caused by medication rebound (the individual is not taking narcotics or triptans exceeding more than 18 doses per month) or lifestyle issues (e.g., sleep patterns, caffeine use, etc.); and
    • Adequate trials of prophylactic therapy from at least two (2) different therapy classes (e.g., antiseizure, beta blockers, tricyclic antidepressants) were either not effective or not tolerated. Documentation of trials and failure should include that these medications have been prescribed at adequate doses and for a reasonable length of time (i.e., six weeks each); and
    • If an individual’s headaches do not adequately respond to treatment (defined as less than a 30% reduction in headache days per month after two treatment cycles), the botulinum toxin should be discontinued; or
    • An initial six month trial may be considered medically necessary when All of the following criteria are met:
  • Chronic migraine continued treatment beyond six (6) months (up to four injection treatments in a 12-month period) may be considered medically necessary when ALL the following criteria are met:
    • Migraine headache frequency reduced by at least seven (7) days per month; and
    • Migraine headaches duration reduced at least 100 hours per month; or
  • Demyelinating disease of central nervous system, unspecified; or
  • Diplegia of upper limbs; or
  • Focal upper-limb dystonia ( e.g., organic writer's cramp) when documentation that abnormal muscle tone is causing persistent pain and/or interfering with functional ability; or
  • Hemifacial spasms (7th cranial nerve palsy) in the adult individual when failure of oral pharmacological therapies such as carbamazepine, baclofen and benzodiazepine; or
  • Hereditary spastic paraplegia; or
  • Idiopathic torsion dystonia; or
  • Incontinence due to detrusor over reactivity (urge incontinence), either idiopathic or due to neurogenic causes (e.g., spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis), that is refractory to second line treatment, (e.g. antimuscarinics/anticholinergics); or
  • Late effects of cerebrovascular disease; or
  • Lower limb spasticity in adult individuals indicated to decrease the severity of increased muscle tone in ankle and toe flexors; or
  • Monoplegia of lower limb; or
  • Monoplegia of upper limb; or
  • Multiple sclerosis; or
  • Neuromyelitis optica; or
  • Orofacial dyskinesia; or
  • Other acquired torsion dystonia; or
  • Other demyelinating diseases of central nervous system; or
  • Overactive bladder with symptoms of urge urinary incontinence, urgency, and frequency that is refractory to second line treatment, (e.g. antimuscarinics/anticholinergics); or
  • Paraplegia; or
  • Quadriplegia and quadriparesis; or
  • Schilder's disease; or
  • Sequela of spinal cord or traumatic brain injury (e.g. spasticity, intractable headache, etc); or
  • Spastic hemiplegia; or
  • Strabismus in individuals greater or equal to 12 years of age; or
  • Subacute dyskinesia due to drugs; or
  • Upper limb spasticity in adult individuals, to decrease the severity of increased muscle tone in elbow flexors, wrist flexors, finger flexors and thumb flexors; or
  • Unspecified monoplegia.

All other uses of onabotulinumtoxinA (Botox) are not medically necessary.

Injections performed on a more frequent basis may be considered not medically necessary. In addition, more than four (4) injections per region per year may be considered not medically necessary.

The use of electrical muscle stimulation or needle electromyography may be considered medically necessary for guidance in conjunction with chemodenervation.

The use of chemodenervation is considered not medically necessary for cosmetic purposes as well as all other indications.

Procedure Codes

52287

53899

64611

64612

64613

64614

64615

64616

64617

64642

64643

64644

64645

64646

64647

64999

67345

92265

95867

95873

95874

J0585

OnabotulinumtoxinA (Botox) and other medically accepted non-FDA approved indications, Class IIB or higher grade recommendation.

OnabotulinumtoxinA (Botox) may be considered medically necessary for the following medically accepted non-FDA approved indications when it's used in the treatment of ANY of the following conditions:

  • Anal fissure (chronic); or
  • Cerebral palsy with spasticity; or
  • Esophageal achalasia: in individuals who have not responded to dilation therapy or who are considered poor surgical candidates; or
  • Laryngeal spasm; or
  • Sialorrhea (drooling) in individuals with functional impairment originating from spasticity or dystonia (conditions of involuntary sustained muscle contraction) resulting from Parkinson disease who have been refractory to pharmacotherapy (including anticholinergics, such as but not limited to scopolamine); or
  • Spasmodic dysphonia in the adult individual.

All other uses of onabotulinumtoxinA (Botox) are considered not medically necessary.

Procedure Codes

46505

64611

64616

64617

95873

95874

J0585

S2340

S2341

AbobotulinumtoxinA (Dysport) may be considered medically necessary for the following FDA approved conditions:

  • Cervical dystonia spasmodic torticollis in adult individuals; or
  • Spasticity in adult individuals (upper and lower limb); or
  • Lower limb spasticity in pediatric individuals 2 years of age and older

All other uses of abobotulinumtoxinA (Dysport) are considered not medically necessary.

Procedure Codes

64615

64616

64642

64643

64644

64645

95873

95874

J0586

IncobotulinumtoxinA (Xeomin®)may be considered medically necessary for adult individuals for the treatment of:

  • Adults with cervical dystonia, also known as spasmodic torticollis associated with sustained head tilt or abnormal posturing with limited range of motion in the neck and a history of recurrent involuntary contraction of one or more of the muscles of the neck (e.g. sternocleidomastoid, splenius, trapezius or posterior cervical muscles), to decrease the severity of abnormal head position and neck pain in both botulinum toxin-naive and previously treated individuals; or
  • Blepharospasm characterized by intermittent or sustained closure of the eyelids caused by involuntary contractions of the orbicularis oculi muscle or facial nerve (VII) disorders including hemifacial spasm in adults previously treated with onabotulinumtoxinA (Botox); or
  • Upper limb spasticity in adults, to decrease the severity of increased muscle tone in elbow flexors, forearm pronators, wrist flexors, thumb, and finger flexors.

All other uses of incobotulinumtoxinA (Xeomin) are considered not medically necessary.

Procedure Codes

64612

64616

64642

64643

64644

64645

95873

95874

J0588

RimabotulinumtoxinB (Myobloc®) may be considered medically necessary for adult individuals for the treatment of:

  • Adult individuals with cervical dystonia, also known as spasmodic torticollis a neurological movement disorder associated with sustained head tilt or abnormal posturing with limited range of motion in the neck and a history of recurrent involuntary contraction of one or more of the muscles of the neck (e.g. sternocleidomastoid, splenius, trapezius or posterior cervical muscles).

All other uses of rimabotulinumtoxinB (Myobloc) are considered not medically necessary.

RimabotulinumtoxinB (Myobloc) for other medically accepted non-FDA approved indications, Class IIB or higher grade recommendation.

RimabotulinumtoxinB (MYOBLOC®) may be considered medically necessary for adult individuals for the treatment of:

  • Ptyalism/sialorrhea (excessive secretion of saliva, drooling) that is associated with advancedParkinson’s disease; and
  • Refractory to pharmacotherapy (including anticholinergics such as but not limited to scopolamine).

All other uses of rimabotulinumtoxinB (Myobloc) are considered not medically necessary.

Procedure Codes

64611

64616

95873

95874

J0587

Note: In addition to the above criteria, product specific dosage and/or frequency limits may apply in accordance with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved product prescribing information, national compendia, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) and other peer reviewed resources or evidence-based guidelines.

Diagnosis Codes

Covered Diagnosis codes for J0585 when billed with: 46505, 52287, 53899, 64611, 64612, 64615, 64616, 64617, 64642, 64643, 64644, 64645, 64646, 64647, 64999, 67345, 92265, 95873, 95874, S2340, S2341

G04.1

G11.4

G20

G24.1

G24.2

G24.3

G24.4

G24.5

G24.8

G24.01

G24.02

G24.09

G25.89

G35

G36.0

G36.8

G37.0

G37.1

G37.2

G37.4

G37.5

G37.8

G37.9

G43.011

G43.019

G43.111

G43.119

G43.701

G43.709

G43.711

G43.719

G51.0

G51.1

G51.2

G51.31

G51.32

G51.33

G51.39

G51.4

G51.8

G56.81

G56.82

G56.83

G57.81

G57.82

G57.83

G80.0

G80.1

G80.2

G80.3

G80.4

G80.8

G80.9

G81.11

G81.12

G81.13

G81.14

G82.20

G82.21

G82.22

G82.50

G82.51

G82.52

G82.53

G82.54

G83.0

G83.4

G83.11

G83.12

G83.13

G83.14

G83.21

G83.22

G83.23

G83.24

G83.31

G83.32

G83.33

G83.34

H49.01

H49.02

H49.03

H49.11

H49.12

H49.13

H49.21

H49.22

H49.23

H49.31

H49.32

H49.33

H49.41

H49.42

H49.43

H49.881

H49.882

H49.883

H50.21

H50.22

H50.30

H50.40

H50.50

H50.51

H50.52

H50.53

H50.60

H50.69

H50.89

H50.011

H50.012

H50.111

H50.112

H50.411

H50.412

H50.611

H50.612

I69.031

I69.032

I69.033

I69.034

I69.041

I69.042

I69.043

I69.044

I69.051

I69.052

I69.053

I69.054

I69.061

I69.062

I69.063

I69.064

I69.065

I69.131

I69.132

I69.133

I69.134

I69.141

I69.142

I69.143

I69.144

I69.151

I69.152

I69.153

I69.154

I69.161

I69.162

I69.163

I69.164

I69.165

I69.231

I69.232

I69.233

I69.234

I69.241

I69.242

I69.243

I69.244

I69.251

I69.252

I69.253

I69.254

I69.261

I69.262

I69.263

I69.264

I69.265

I69.331

I69.332

I69.333

I69.334

I69.341

I69.342

I69.343

I69.344

I69.351

I69.352

I69.353

I69.354

I69.361

I69.362

I69.363

I69.364

I69.365

I69.831

I69.832

I69.833

I69.834

I69.841

I69.842

I69.843

I69.844

I69.851

I69.852

I69.853

I69.854

I69.861

I69.862

I69.863

I69.864

I69.865

I69.931

I69.932

I69.933

I69.934

I69.941

I69.942

I69.943

I69.944

I69.951

I69.952

I69.953

I69.954

I69.961

I69.962

I69.963

I69.964

I69.965

J38.5

J38.7

K11.7

K22.0

K60.1

M43.6

N31.0

N31.1

N31.8

N31.9

N32.81

N39.3

N39.41

N39.43

N39.44

N39.45

N39.46

N39.498

R25.0

R25.1

R25.2

R25.3

R25.8

R25.9

R32

R49.0

R49.8

Covered Diagnosis codes for J0586 when billed with: 64615, 64616, 64642, 64643, 64644, 64645, 95873, 95874

G11.4

G24.01

G24.02

G24.09

G24.1

G24.2

G24.3

G24.8

G25.89

G35

G36.8

G37.8

G37.9

G80.0

G80.1

G80.2

G80.3

G80.4

G80.8

G80.9

G81.11

G81.12

G81.13

G81.14

G82.20

G82.21

G82.22

G82.50

G82.51

G82.52

G82.53

G82.54

G83.0

G83.11

G83.12

G83.13

G83.14

G83.21

G83.22

G83.23

G83.24

G83.31

G83.32

G83.33

G83.34

G83.4

I69.031

I69.032

I69.033

I69.034

I69.041

I69.042

I69.043

I69.044

I69.051

I69.052

I69.053

I69.054

I69.061

I69.062

I69.063

I69.064

I69.065

I69.131

I69.132

I69.133

I69.134

I69.141

I69.142

I69.143

I69.144

I69.151

I69.152

I69.153

I69.154

I69.161

I69.162

I69.163

I69.164

I69.165

I69.231

I69.232

I69.233

I69.234

I69.241

I69.242

I69.243

I69.244

I69.251

I69.252

I69.253

I69.254

I69.261

I69.262

I69.263

I69.264

I69.265

I69.331

I69.332

I69.333

I69.334

I69.341

I69.342

I69.343

I69.344

I69.351

I69.352

I69.353

I69.354

I69.361

I69.362

I69.363

I69.364

I69.365

I69.831

I69.832

I69.833

I69.834

I69.841

I69.842

I69.843

I69.844

I69.851

I69.852

I69.853

I69.854

I69.861

I69.862

I69.863

I69.864

I69.865

I69.931

I69.932

I69.933

I69.934

I69.941

I69.942

I69.943

I69.944

I69.951

I69.952

I69.953

I69.954

I69.961

I69.962

I69.963

I69.964

I69.965

R25.2

Covered Diagnosis codes for J0587 when billed with: 64611, 64616, 95873, 95874

G20

G24.3

K11.7

Covered Diagnosis codes for J0588 when billed with: 64612, 64616, 64642, 64643, 64644, 64645, 95873, 95874

 

G24.3

G24.5

G56.81

G56.82

G56.83

G80.0

G80.1

G80.2

G80.3

G80.4

G80.8

G80.9

G81.11

G81.12

G81.13

G81.14

R25.2

G81.14

R25.2

Professional Statements and Societal Positions

American Academy of Neurology (AAN). Botulinum neurotoxin should be offered as a treatment option for the treatment of cervical dystonia, blepharospasm, focal upper extremity dystonia, adductor laryngeal dystonia, upper extremity essential tremor, and may be considered for hemifacial spasm and focal lower limb dystonia.

American Urological Association (AUA). Intradetrusor onabotulinumtoxinA should be offered as third-line treatment in the carefully-selected and thoroughly-counseled individual who has been refractory to first and second-line OAB treatments. The individual must be able and willing to return for frequent post-void residual evaluation and able and willing to perform self-catheterization if necessary.

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