Biofeedback for constipation in adults may be considered medically necessary for individuals with dyssynergia-type constipation as demonstrated by meeting ALL of the following criteria:
- Symptoms of functional constipation that meet ROME IV criteria; and
- Objective physiologic evidence of pelvic floor dyssynergia demonstrated by inappropriate contraction of the pelvic floor muscles or less than 20% relaxation of basal resting sphincter pressure by manometry, imaging or electromyography (EMG); and
- Failed a three (3) month trial of standard treatments for constipation including laxatives, dietary changes, and exercises (as many of the previous as are tolerated).
Biofeedback may be considered medically necessary as part of the overall treatment plan for migraine and tension-type headache. Before a biofeedback program is introduced, a physician must determine that the headaches are not pathological in nature. Such pathologies include:
- Brain tumors; or
- Hematoma; or
- Edema; or
- Aneurysm; or
- Disease of the eyes, ears, or sinus.
Biofeedback may be considered medically necessary for the treatment of stress and/or urge incontinence in cognitively intact individuals who have failed a documented trial of pelvic muscle exercise (PME) training. A failed trial is defined as no clinically significant improvement in urinary continence after completing four (4) weeks of an ordered regimen of PMEs.
Biofeedback using capnometry guided respiratory intervention (CGRI) (e.g., Freespira may be considered medically necessary as part of the overall treatment plan for adult individuals, age 18 and older, diagnosed with panic disorder and/or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) when the individual is capable of participating in the treatment plan (physically and cognitively).
All other indications of biofeedback are considered experimental/investigational due lack of scientific evidence, and therefore, not covered because the safety and efficacy cannot be established by review of the available published peer-reviewed literature.