Corneal Topography/Computer-Assisted Corneal Topography/ Photokeratoscopy

Section: Miscellaneous
Effective Date: July 01, 2018
Revised Date: November 14, 2019
Last Reviewed: November 14, 2019

Description

Detection and Monitoring Diseases of the Cornea

Corneal topography describes measurements of the curvature of the cornea. An evaluation of corneal topography is necessary for the accurate diagnosis and follow-up of certain corneal disorders, such as keratoconus, difficult contact lens fits, and pre- and postoperative assessment of the cornea, most commonly after refractive surgery.

Assessing corneal topography is a part of the standard ophthalmologic examination of some individuals. Corneal topography can be evaluated and determined in multiple ways. Computer-assisted corneal topography has been used for early identification and quantitative documentation of the progression of keratoconic corneas, and evidence is sufficient to indicate that computer-assisted topographic mapping can detect and monitor disease.

Various techniques and instruments are available to measure corneal topography: keratometer, keratoscope, and computer-assisted photokeratoscopy.

  • The keratometer (also referred to as an ophthalmometer), the most commonly used instrument, projects an illuminated image onto a central area in the cornea. By measuring the distance between a pair of reflected points in both of the cornea’s 2 principal meridians, the keratometer can estimate the radius of curvature of 2 meridians. Limitations of this technique include the fact that the keratometer can only estimate the corneal curvature over a small percentage of its surface and that estimates are based on the frequently incorrect assumption that the cornea is spherical.
  • The keratoscope reflects a series of concentric circular rings off the anterior corneal surface. Visual inspection of the shape and spacing of the concentric rings provides a qualitative assessment of topography.
  • A photokeratoscope is a keratoscope equipped with a camera that can provide a permanent record of the corneal topography.
  • Computer-assisted photokeratoscopy is an alternative to keratometry or keratoscopy for measuring corneal curvature. This technique uses sophisticated image analysis programs to provide quantitative corneal topographic data. Early computer-based programs were combined with keratoscopy to create graphic displays and high-resolution, color-coded maps of the corneal surface. Newer technologies measure both curvature and shape, enabling quantitative assessment of corneal depth, elevation, and power.

Regulatory Status

A number of devices have been cleared for marketing by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration through the 510(k) process. In 1999, the Orbscan® (manufactured by Orbtek, distributed by Bausch and Lomb) was cleared by the Food and Drug Administration. The second-generation Orbscan II is a hybrid system that uses both projective (slit scanning) and reflective (Placido) methods. The Pentacam® (Oculus) is one of a number of rotating Scheimpflug imaging systems produced in Germany. In 2005, the Pentacam HR was released with a newly designed high-resolution camera and improved optics. Food and Drug Administration product code: MXK.

Table 1. Corneal Topography Devices Clearing by the US Food and Drug Administration

Device Manufacturer Date Cleared 510.k No. Indication
Populations Interventions Comparators Outcomes  
Individuals: Interventions of interest are: Comparators of interest are: Relevant outcomes include:  
  • With disorders of corneal topography
  • Computer-assisted corneal topography/photokeratoscopy
  • Manual corneal topography measurements
  • Test accuracy
  • Other test performance measures
  • Functional outcomes
 
VX130 Ophthalmic Diagnostic Device LUNEAU SAS 4/24/2017 K162067 To scan, map and display the geometry of the anterior segment of the eye
Pentacam AXL OCULUS OPTIKGERATE GMBH 1/20/2016 K152311 To scan, map and display the geometry of the anterior segment of the eye
ARGOS SANTEC CORPORATION 10/2/2015 K150754 To scan, map and display the geometry of the anterior segment of the eye
ALLEGRO OCULYZER WAVELIGHT AG 7/20/2007 K071183 To scan, map and display the geometry of the anterior segment of the eye
HEIDELBERG ENGINEERING SLITLAMP-OCT (SL-OCT) HEIDELBERG ENGINEERING 1/13/2006 K052935 To scan, map and display the geometry of the anterior segment of the eye
CM 3910 ROTATING DOUBLE SCHEIMPFLUG CAMERA SIS LTD. SURGICAL INSTRUMENT SYSTEMS 9/28/2005 K051940 To scan, map and display the geometry of the anterior segment of the eye
PATHFINDER MASSIE RESEARCH LABORATORIES INC. 9/2/2004 K031788 To scan, map and display the geometry of the anterior segment of the eye
NGDI (NEXT GENERATION DIAGNOSTIC INSTRUMENT) BAUSCH & LOMB 7/23/2004 K040913 To scan, map and display the geometry of the anterior segment of the eye
PENTACAM SCHEIMPFLUG CAMERA OCULUS OPTIKGERATE GMBH 9/16/2003 K030719 To scan, map and display the geometry of the anterior segment of the eye
ANTERIOR EYE-SEGMENT ANALYSIS SYSTEM NIDEK INC. 8/6/1999 K991284 To scan, map and display the geometry of the anterior segment of the eye
ORBSCAN TECHNOLAS PERFECT VISION GMBH 3/5/1999 K984443 To scan, map and display the geometry of the anterior segment of the eye
VX130 Ophthalmic Diagnostic Device LUNEAU SAS 4/24/2017 K162067 To scan, map and display the geometry of the anterior segment of the eye

Criteria

Non-computer-assisted corneal topography is considered part of the evaluation and management services of general ophthalmologic services (CPT codes 92002-92014), and therefore this service should not be billed separately.  There is no separate CPT code for this type of corneal topography.

Computer-assisted corneal topography is considered not medically necessary to detect or monitor diseases of the cornea

Procedure Codes

9200292004920129201492025

Diagnosis Codes

H16.001H16.002H16.003H16.009H16.011H16.012H16.013
H16.019H16.021H16.022H16.023H16.029H16.031H16.032
H16.033H16.039H16.001H16.041H16.042H16.043H16.049
H16.051H16.052H16.053H16.059H16.061H16.062H16.063
H16.069H16.071H16.072H16.073H16.079H16.101H16.102
H16.103H16.109H16.001H16.111H16.112H16.113H16.119
H16.121H16.122H16.123H16.129H16.131H16.132H16.133
H16.139H16.141H16.142H16.143H16.149H16.201H16.202
H16.203H16.209H16.211H16.212H16.213H16.219H16.221
H16.222H16.223H16.229H16.231H16.232H16.233H16.239
H16.241H16.242H16.243H16.249H16.251H16.252H16.253
H16.259H16.261H16.262H16.263H16.269H16.291H16.292
H16.293H16.299H16.301H16.302H16.303H16.309H16.311
H16.312H16.313H16.319H16.321H16.322H16.323H16.329
H16.331H16.332H16.333H16.339H16.391H16.392H16.393
H16.399H16.401H16.402H16.403H16.409H16.411H16.412
H16.413H16.419H16.421H16.422H16.423H16.429H16.431
H16.432H16.433H16.439H16.441H16.442H16.443H16.449
H16.8H16.9H17.00H17.01H17.02H17.03H17.10
H17.11H17.12H17.811H17.812H17.813H17.819H17.821
H17.822H17.823H17.829H17.89H17.9H18.001H18.002
H18.003H18.009H18.011H18.012H18.013H18.019H18.021
H18.022H18.023H18.029H18.031H18.032H18.039H18.041
H18.042H18.043H18.049H18.051H18.052H18.053H18.059
H18.061H18.062H18.063H18.069H18.10H18.11H18.12
H18.13H18.20H18.211H18.212H18.213H18.219H18..221
H18.222H18.223H18.229H18.231H18.232H18.233H18.239
H18.30H18.311H18.312H18.313H18.319H18.321H18.322
H18.323H18.329H18.331H18.332H18.333H18.339H18.40
H18.411H18.412H18.413H18.419H18.421H18.422H18.423
H18.429H18.43H18.441H18.442H18.443H18.449H18.451
H18.452H18.453H18.459H18.461H18.462H18.463H18.469
H18.49H18.50H18.51H18.52H18.53H18.54H18.55
H18.59H18.601H18.302H18.603H18.609H18.611H18.612
H18.613H18.619H18.621H18.622H18.623H18.629H18.70
H18.711H18.712H18.713H18.719H18.721H18.722H18.723
H18.729H18.731H18.732H18.733H18.739H18.791H18.792
H18.793H18.799H18.811H18.812H18.813H18.819H18.821
H18.822H18.823H18.829H18.831H18.832H18.833H18.839
H18.891H18.892H18.893H18.899H18.9

Professional Statements and Societal Positions Guidelines

Practice Guidelines and Position Statements

A 1999 American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) assessment indicated that computer-assisted corneal topography evolved from the need to measure corneal curvature and topography more comprehensively and accurately than keratometry and that corneal topography is used primarily for refractive surgery. AAO indicated several other potential uses: (1) to evaluate and manage individuals following penetrating keratoplasty, (2) to plan astigmatic surgery, (3) to evaluate individuals with unexplained visual loss and document visual complications, and (4) to fit contact lenses. However, the AAO assessment noted the lack of data supporting the use of objective measurements (as opposed to subjective determinants, like subjective refraction) of astigmatism.

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