Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of ocular vascular conditions. The macula, with the fovea at its center, has the highest photoreceptor concentration and is where visual detail is discerned. The anti-VEGF agent's brolucizumab-dbll (Beovu®), ranibizumab (Lucentis™), ranibizumab-eqrn (Cimerli
), ranibizumab-nuna (Byooviz
), ranibizumab injection ocular implant (Susvimo
), bevacizumab (Avastin®), pegaptanib (Macugen®), aflibercept (Eylea ™), and faricimab-svoa (Vabysmo
) are used to treat certain ocular disorders and are given by intravitreal injection.
Geographic atrophy (GA) is a late stage of dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Pegcetacoplan (Syfovre
) is an intravitreal injection for the treatment of GA that works by slowing progression of GA lesions that can permanently damage the macula. Pegcetacoplan injection (Syfovre) is a synthetic peptide that binds to complement protein C3 and its activation fragment C3b which then regulates the binding of C3 and the sequence of downstream effectors of the activated complement protein.
Symptomatic vitreomacular adhesion (VMA) occurs when the vitreous (jelly-like substance inside the eye) has persistent adhesion to the macula. Symptomatic VMA symptoms such as distorted or decreased vision are a result of this persistent adhesion. If the disease progresses, the symptoms can worsen and may result in central vision defect and loss of vision. Ocriplasmin (Jetrea®), a proteolytic enzyme, is a single intravitreal injection indicated for the treatment of symptomatic VMA. It breaks down proteins in the eye responsible for VMA.